Animated computer graphics representation of a fractal image derived from the Mandelbrot Set. Fractals geometry is used to derive complex shapes as often found in nature. The Mandelbrot Set named after the mathematician Benoit B. Mandelbrot, is a group of complex numbers plotted using their real and imaginary parts as coordinates. Complex patterns are produced by a series of repeated mathematical operations or mappings. Generated on a computer screen, fractals are used to create models for real-world non-linear phenomena such as stock market prices, plant growth, erosion of coastlines and fluid turbulence.
Timelapse footage of waves of color produced in an oscillating BZ chemical reaction. The colors here are due to the indicator chemical ferroin, which contains an iron ion surrounded by three phenanthroline ligands. Ferroin is red when the iron is iron (II), in its +2 oxidation state, and blue when it is oxidized to the +3 state, iron (III). The initial mixture contains ferroin with iron (II), bromate ions, and malonic acid. Through a series of complex reactions, bromate oxidizes the iron (II) to iron (III), turning it blue. The malonic acid reduces the iron (III) back to iron (II), turning it red again. Hypobromous acid in the solution reacts with malonic acid to produce bromomalonic acid and bromate ions. The varying concentrations of these species lead to their diffusion into regions of relative scarcity, and this, combined with the varying equilibrium positions of the reaction in adjacent areas, produces the appearance of traveling waves. The reaction was discovered independently by Boris Belousov in the 1950s and Anatoly Zhabotinsky in 1961, and is named in their honor