1. All life on earth needs water for its survival. So the oceans play one of the most important roles for life on earth. Water on Earth is two-third of the Earth’s surface. Due to its depth, sea habitat covers about 300 times the habitable volume of the globe. About 230,000 species live in the sea. Also new species are being discovered almost every day and there doesn’t seem to be an end to this process. Sea animals are very strange and very different from the animals on land. They are very complex and hard to understand. Marine animals have a great deal of diversity, from the microscopic, like the amoeba to the huge whales which reach up to 98 feet in length. All types of life are found in sea, including birds (penguins), reptiles (sea turtles, sea snakes), invertebrates (jelly fish, shellfish), mammals (whales, dolphins), fungi, plants and of course the fish. Large areas beneath the ocean surface still remain unexplored. Marine life is very useful, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support tourism all over the world. Marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet. Many species are economically important to humans, including food fish. Also the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in various ways. Our knowledge regarding the relationship between life in the sea and life on the land is rapidly growing, with new discoveries being made nearly every day. These relationships include those of matter (such as the carbon cycle) and of air (such as Earth's respiration). Marine organisms contribute significantly to the oxygen cycle, and are involved in the regulation of the Earth's climate.

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  2. Does Quantum Physics Make it Easier to Believe in Hashem?

    Not in any direct way. That is, it doesn’t provide an argument for the existence of God. But it does so indirectly, by providing an argument against the philosophy called materialism (or “physicalism”), which is the main intellectual opponent of belief in God in today’s world.

    Materialism is an atheistic philosophy that says that all of reality is reducible to matter and its interactions. It has gained ground because many people think that it’s supported by science. They think that physics has shown the material world to be a closed system of cause and effect, sealed off from the influence of any non-physical realities --- if any there be. Since our minds and thoughts obviously do affect the physical world, it would follow that they are themselves merely physical phenomena. No room for a spiritual soul or free will: for materialists we are just “machines made of meat.”

    Quantum mechanics, however, throws a monkey wrench into this simple mechanical view of things. No less a figure than Eugene Wigner, a Nobel Prize winner in physics, claimed that materialism --- at least with regard to the human mind --- is not “logically consistent with present quantum mechanics.” And on the basis of quantum mechanics, Sir Rudolf Peierls, another great 20th-century physicist, said, “the premise that you can describe in terms of physics the whole function of a human being ... including [his] knowledge, and [his] consciousness, is untenable. There is still something missing.”

    How, one might ask, can quantum mechanics have anything to say about the human mind? Isn’t it about things that can be physically measured, such as particles and forces? It is; but while minds cannot be measured, it is ultimately minds that do the measuring. And that, as we shall see, is a fact that cannot be ignored in trying to make sense of quantum mechanics. If one claims that it is possible (in principle) to give a complete physical description of what goes on during a measurement --- including the mind of the person who is doing the measuring --- one is led into severe difficulties. This was pointed out in the 1930s by the great mathematician John von Neumann. Though I cannot go into technicalities in an essay such as this, I will try to sketch the argument.

    It all begins with the fact that quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic. Of course, even in “classical physics” (i.e. the physics that preceded quantum mechanics and that still is adequate for many purposes) one sometimes uses probabilities; but one wouldn’t have to if one had enough information. Quantum mechanics is radically different: it says that even if one had complete information about the state of a physical system, the laws of physics would typically only predict probabilities of future outcomes. These probabilities are encoded in something called the “wavefunction” of the system.

    A familiar example of this is the idea of “half-life.” Radioactive nuclei are liable to “decay” into smaller nuclei and other particles. If a certain type of nucleus has a half-life of, say, an hour, it means that a nucleus of that type has a 50% chance of decaying within 1 hour, a 75% chance within two hours, and so on. The quantum mechanical equations do not (and cannot) tell you when a particular nucleus will decay, only the probability of it doing so as a function of time. This is not something peculiar to nuclei. The principles of quantum mechanics apply to all physical systems, and those principles are inherently and inescapably probabilistic.

    This is where the problem begins. It is a paradoxical (but entirely logical) fact that a probability only makes sense if it is the probability of something definite. For example, to say that Jane has a 70% chance of passing the French exam only means something if at some point she takes the exam and gets a definite grade. At that point, the probability of her passing no longer remains 70%, but suddenly jumps to 100% (if she passes) or 0% (if she fails). In other words, probabilities of events that lie in between 0 and 100% must at some point jump to 0 or 100% or else they meant nothing in the first place.

    This raises a thorny issue for quantum mechanics. The master equation that governs how wavefunctions change with time (the “Schrödinger equation”) does not yield probabilities that suddenly jump to 0 or 100%, but rather ones that vary smoothly and that generally remain greater than 0 and less than 100%. Radioactive nuclei are a good example. The Schrödinger equation says that the “survival probability” of a nucleusstarts off at 100%, and then falls continuously, reaching 50% after one half-life, 25% after two half-lives, and so on --- but never reaching zero. In other words, the Schrödinger equation only gives probabilities of decaying, never an actual decay! (If there were an actual decay, the survival probability should jump to

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  4. The Brain's Super Computer

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  5. "And Hashem said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so."

    The frogfish is yet another strange creature for which those who believe in random evolution can find no history. Not only do evolutionists admit that frogfish are not related by evolution to any other creature, but also they can find no relationship among 35 of the 41 known species of frogfish!

    Frogfish live in many different shallow sea areas. They are called frogfish because they have a wide mouth and face like a frog. In addition, their front fins are on the ends of what appear to be very fat frog legs. Yet they also have a fleshy lure, suspended on sort of a pole coming out of their forehead, like the deep water angler fish. And like the angler, the frogfish uses this bait to lure lunch close to its mouth.

    Like the platypus, the frogfish unites very different characteristics of several creatures into one unlikely but imaginative creation. Random evolutionists are unable to imagine an evolutionary history for this creature. What's more, they cannot figure out how most of the 41 different species of frogfish they have designated might be related to one another.

    The frogfish is a dramatic testimony to the fact that Hashem has created all creatures according to His unlimited creativity, fully formed and so unique that sometimes random evolutionists cannot even invent an evolutionary history for them.

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