Séminaire agroécologie de Montpellier du 15/01/2013
Animation scientifique "Agroécologie - Intensification écologique des systèmes de culture" (Montpellier)
Au travers de séminaires/débats, des unités de recherche en agronomie de Montpellier (Cirad, Inra, Ird et Montpellier SupAgro) vous proposent, en partenariat avec Agropolis International, une animation collective transversale mensuelle autour de l'intensification écologique des systèmes de culture.
Global changes have immense impacts on human societies. For instance, the livelihoods of poor rural families and the sustainable management of their natural resources have been shown to be severely impacted by economic globalization and climate change. To tackle these adverse effects in tropical regions, global society and national governments seek to enhance the sustainability of the rural livelihoods, generate wealth and reduce both poverty and the vulnerability of rural economies, increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of households to climate change, and promote the shift to green economies with low carbon emissions and high carbon storage. Three million smallholders cultivate 7 million hectares of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) worldwide; around 80% of the cocoa is cultivated under a shade tree canopy. Farmers retain a large list of tree species in the plot to provide shade and shelter to sustain high cocoa yields; and to produce timber, fruits, fiber and other goods for family consumption, use in the farm, or sale. Cocoa agroforestry systems have been ranked as good land use alternatives to cope with climate change because their high levels of species diversity, year-round soil cover, high levels of store carbon in the soil and aboveground, and other positive attributes. Despite all these good features, shaded cocoa systems are affected by global changes and it is safe to ask: Can these systems be optimized for the simultaneous delivery of valuable goods for the household and the provision of ecosystem services for society? How to achieve this?. In this presentation: 1) we show that cocoa agroforestry meets most recommendations for properly mitigating and adapting to climate change; 2) show that there is plenty of room for improving existing cocoa shade canopies to optimize trade-offs between productivity, biodiversity conservation and mitigation of climate change (stocking large amounts of carbon in wood biomass); and 3) delineate a simple, practical methodology for the analysis, improved design and management of cocoa shade canopies at any particular location.