The dictators who ruled over the Arab region for decades constructed complex systems of repression but also inculcated specific cultural values in the general population. Local populations were encouraged to adopt various opinions about their character and their society, all of which were ultimately designed to encourage them to willingly surrender their rights and system of government in favor of a single individual who would remain unaccountable for his actions. Although many of the dictators have now been consigned to history, the decades of propaganda that they orchestrated have had a marked impact on society, to the extent that even debates surrounding constitutional reform have been impacted. Each of the countries that has embarked on a reform process since 2011 has had to deal with this legacy, some successfully, others less so. This presentation will explore how the legacy of totalitarianism impacts constitutional reform in each of the countries that has been engaging in constitutional reform since 2011.
Zaid Al-Ali is a senior adviser on constitutional building for International IDEA. He has been following the transition processes in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt closely, and was previously involved in Iraq.