Modern payment cards encompass a bewildering array of consumer technologies, from credit and debit cards to pre-paid and loyalty cards. But what unites all of these financial media is their connection to recordkeeping systems. Each swipe sends data hurtling through invisible infrastructures to verify accounts, record purchase details, exchange funds, and update balances. With payment cards, banks and merchants have been able to amass vast archives of transactional data. This information is a valuable asset in itself. It can be used for in-house data analytics programs or sold as marketing intelligence to third parties. This paper examines the development of payment cards from the late nineteenth century to present, drawing attention to their fundamental relationship to identification, recordkeeping, and data aggregation practices. The history of payment cards, I argue, is not just a history of financial innovation and computing; it is also a history of consumer surveillance.