1. MANAGEMENT AND EXPLOITATION OF ANIMAL RESOURCES IN LAKESHORE ENVIRONMENTS IN THE EARLY NEOLITHIC IN THE NORTH-EAST OF THE IBERIA VOD

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    Verdún Castelló, Ester (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Navarrete, Vanessa (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Blanco, Àngel (Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Universitat Rovira i Virgili; 1Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Garcia, Lluís (UMR 5140, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) Saña, Maria (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) La Draga site is located on the eastern shore of the Lake of Banyoles (Girona, Spain). Chronologically it corresponds to the early Neolithic. Two occupation phases have been distinguished: one corresponding to 5430-5000 cal BC and another one corresponding to 5210-4796 cal BC. The site has an extension of 8000m2 and only 10% of it has been excavated. It is partially underwater, a characteristic that permitted the excellent conservation of the remains. In La Draga, the presence of several kind of domestic and wild animals (mammals, fishes, birds, molluscs, reptiles...) (more than 50 species), has been documented and shows the exploitation of different environments. The exploitation of areas with different characteristics requires the combination of different techniques and economic practices (herding, hunting, fishing and collecting) and the implementation of a system of social organization to exploit and to manage the resources of these diverse environments. A detailed analysis of each type of archaeofaunal remains has been carried out (taxonomic analyses, MNI quantification, biometrics...). All the obtained data have been integrated in order to offer a general explanation about the exploitation and management of the faunal resources. Remains of birds, fishes, domestic and wild mammals, molluscs and turtles have been documented. This wide variety of animal resources shows: a) the exploitation of different environments (high mountain areas, forest, lakeshore, coastal areas, grazing areas; and b) the implementation of adequate techniques of managing, obtaining and processing of each type of animal. Chronologically La Draga site corresponds to the first moments of the implementation of agriculture and herding in the Iberian Peninsula. This characteristic together with the excellent conservation of the remains, makes La Draga an exceptional site to study the transition of an economy based on hunting and gathering to agriculture and herding and the social implications of this change. The study of the role of animal resources in La Draga and the interrelation among the different resources in a moment of economic change between two economic systems, could afford new data to reconstruct the social activities and the social organization system of the first agricultural and herding societies. The analyses of the animal remains recovered in La Draga show a combination of different productive activities (herding, hunting, fishing and collecting of molluscs). All these activities, permitted the inhabitants of the settlement to exploit all the available resources. However it seems that the consumption of domestic animals would be more important than the other. Although the presence of different types of species denotes the consumption of resources from different environments, lake environment and forest areas surrounding the site were the most exploited.

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    • THE USE OF WOOD FODDER AT EL MIRADOR CAVE (ATAPUERCA, BURGOS). A STUDY BASED ON ANTHRACOLOGY AND DENDROLOGY VOD

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      from White Tiger Books / Added

      Euba, Itxaso (1 ICAC, Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica. Spain) Allué, Ethel (3 IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, URV) Burjachs, Francesc (1 IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, URV) Wood fodder is an important income of food for herds in agro-pastoral communities. It is usually grazed and some species are specially appreciated by goats or sheep. The identification of wood charcoal in archaeological contexts hasbeensuggestedaspartofwoodyfoddertofeedanimals inside caves overall during winter periods. El Mirador cave has yielded a continuous sedimentary deposit of burnt sediments identified as “fumier” layers, corresponding to burnt sheep and goat dung. The study of the charcoal assemblage from El Mirador has been based on an anthracological traditional approach and a dendrological analysis. This multiapproach has permitted to characterize the charcoal assemblage. The anthracological analyses is based on the study of 3868 charcoal remains from 16 layers covering a chronological span from 7030 ±40 to 4760 ±40 yrs BP. Layers 6 to 24 correspond to the Neolithic whereas layers 3 and 4 correspond to the Bronze age. The results of the antracological analyses show that oaks (evergreen and deciduous oaks) were the most used species along the sequences showing >60% in all layers. Other taxa were also present in low percentages Pinus sylvestristype, Fraxinus, Corylus among others showing a more humid environment. At the top of the sequence evergreen oaks show higher values, with lower values of Fraxinus and Corylus indicating an increase of aridity. Finally, Fagus and Fabaceae are only present in the Bronze Age layers. The dendrological analyses could be only applied to a small sample, as charcoal fragments are usually small and number of rings needed for the study is not always available. The results show that most of the analyzed samples show much curved growth rings and mean value of 6 to 10 rings. These results suggest that the used wood corresponds to young branches and tree rings rapid growth rhythm which might be indicating that trees have been pruned regularly. Both analyses suggest that oak was probably used for woody fodder and was burnt during the combustion process that was carried out repeatedly.

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      • MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNICAL AND FUNCTIONAL STIGMAS AS A METHOD FOR THE USE-WEAR ANALYSIS OF ROCK CRYSTAL TOOLS VOD

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        Fernández Marchena, Juan Luis (IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Zona educacional 4 (Edifici W3), Campus Sescelades URV, 43007 Tarragona, Spain / Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Fac. de Lletres, Av. Catalunya 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain) Rock crystal is a quartz variety of very good quality and excellent aptitudes for knapping. Although it is a infrequent raw material, in certain geological contexts, as in our case study, it can assume a large part of the tooling. Despite this, it is a material very little researched. The reasons for this lack of interest may be various, from the difficulty of analyzing a translucent material to its direct attachment to the symbolic world. Here we propose a methodology combining macro and microscopic analysis of knapping and use stigmas in order to establish a better approximation to the functionality of rock crystal artefacts. We integrally analyzed a series of experimental tools before use, with different microscopic equipment (low magnification microscopy, SEM and OLM with a Nomarski prism). After a first documentation, the tools were used in a sequential experimental program in order to observe the evolution of the use-wear. Fourteen experiments were done on different materials and with different actions, documenting the different traces of use with their respective orientations and sizes that appeared in each of the times recorded. The set of experiments resulted in different associations of use-wear traces (striations, chipping, roundings and polish) characteristic of the various worked materials and actions employed. We have also documented the lancet as a stigma of a technical character, which can also provide functional information. This is due to the formation process of this stigma, either by percussion or pressure. While those formed from the impact point on the ventral side are distributed radially, those created into the chipped follow the kinematics of the tools. Finally, we demonstrated that rock crystal is a material that offers many possibilities for use wear analysis. For this purpose, an analysis the association of a set of technical and functional stigmas is necessary. Furthermore, although the OLM with Nomarski prism is the best optical media to analyze rock crystal, the combination with other media can provide even more information.

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        • SIZE AND MECHANICAL CORRELATION AMONG BONES: AN ATTEMPT TO ASSOCIATE ISOLATED BONES VOD

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          Rodriguez, Laura (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos) Carretero, Jose Miguel (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) García-Gonzalez, Rebeca (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos) Martinez, Ignacio (Departamento de Paleontología de la Universidad de Alcalá, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) Gracia, Ana (Departamento de Paleontología de la Universidad de Alcalá, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) Arsuaga, Juan Luis (Departamento de Paleontología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humano) When a mass grave is discovered there should be a big quantity of bones from different individuals which are mixed or/and without any clear anatomical position. Because the main goal in every Physical and Forensic Anthropology and Archaeological studies is to characterize the population biological profile, one of the first steps in all the cases is to try to establish a minimum number of individual (MNI) which of them are males and which females, the age at dead, and of course, and to try associate bones belonging to the same individual to be able to determine body proportions. So, the founding of mixed and isolated bones of different individuals is one of the biggest problems to be solved. Until now, systematic search by symmetry and articular congruence was the main way to try to define an individual, but in here we will try to add a new tool for this, the diaphyseal cross-section geometric properties of the bones. We use several modern human samples (N=150) and a Neandertal sample (N=9) to check the use of the new proposed technic to other potential populations and/or species. Correlation in joint size measurements in contiguous bones and bone length in parallel ones are used for eliminate the most unprovable association of couple of bones, and then the correlation of geometric properties at 50% level for all bones (except in the humerus in which we use the 35% level) is used only in those most probable pairs. Sliding caliper and osteometric board for articular and length measurements as well as computer tomography, Mimics software and Autocad are used to extract and calculate the mechanical parameters. It can be said, that correlation coefficients between joints in the same individual are high enough to, at least, eliminate some bone couples which are unable to belong to the same individual. Geometric properties are indeed the best approach to associate bones with r values around 0.9 in most cases. In this work we are showing that Neandertals look to follow the same trend than modern humans. This methodical combination is a powerful tool in order to associate isolated bones, and as in Neandertals is also valid, we are opening here a new way for associating bones in other hominin samples.

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          • HOLISTIC ANALYSIS OF SCHÖNINGEN 13II-4 FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE: NEW EVIDENCES OF MULTIPLE HUNTING EVENT ON AN INTERGLACIAL MIS9 LAKES VOD

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            from White Tiger Books / Added

            Villaluenga, Aritza (MONREPOS Archaeological research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) Hutson, Jarod (MONREPOS Archaeological research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro (MONREPOS Archaeological research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) Turner, Elaine (MONREPOS Archaeological research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine (MONREPOS Archaeological research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) The Schöningen archaeological site, located in Lower Saxony, Germany, has received much attention over the past twenty years for the remarkable discovery of well-preserved wooden spears in association with a large assamblage of Middle Pleistocene faunal remains. Geological and palaeoenvironmental contexts indicate an accumulation during an interglacial phase (MIS 9), roughly 300.000 years ago. Here we present preliminary interpretations of the faunal assamblage from the “Spear Horizon”. Through a combination of archaeozoological, taphonomic and spatial analyses, we aim to reconstruct the processes of the site formation and to identify patterns in the faunal assemblage thet relate directly to Middle Pleistocene hominin subsistence behaviours. The assemblage is clearly representative of an interglacial lake-shore environment, dominated overwhelmingly by horses (Equus mosbachensis), but also includes bovids (Bos primigenius, Bison priscus), cervids (Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus), smaller mammals, waterfowls and fish. Preliminary results suggest the use of the site as a location of repeated ambush hunting along the lake-shore margin during the Middle Pleistocene. Age and sex profiles of the horse population indicate the presence of multiple herds and multiple hunting episodes. Evidence of systematic butchery (filleting, disarticulation and marrow extraction) indicates that the entire sequence of carcasses exploitation occurred at the hunting site. Secondarily, mediumsized carnivore activity is present, but subsequent to abandonment by Middle Pleistocene hominins. The excellent preservation at the site allows for the study of other amodifications produced by the use of different bone pieces as retouchers, soft hammers and anvils. While the circumstances for preservation and discovery of the Schöningen 13II-4 “Spear Horizon” assemblage was quite fortuitous, the accumulation of the site was not a matter of chance. The warm interglacial environment provided the hominids groups with a variety of vegetal and animal resources to exploit. The site, situated along the margins of a large lake close to the foot of Elm hill range, represented a well-known location on the landscape for Middle Pleistocene hunter groups to ambush large ungulate, especially horses. This unique archaelogical record provides an exceptional assemblage to analyse the functional organization of hominid behaviour during the Middle Pleistocene.

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            • A RE-EVALUATION OF AN INTERGLACIAL SITE IN THE CENTRAL RHINELAND OF GERMANY: THE LOWER PALAEOLITHIC SITE OF MIESENHEIM I VOD

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              from White Tiger Books / Added

              Turner, Elaine (MONREPOS Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, RGZM) The Lower Palaeolithic site of Miesenheim I, located at the edge of the Neuwied Basin, was investigated in a series of campaigns at the end of the 1980’s and beginning of the 1990’s. The site produced an interglacial fauna in association with a small assemblage of lithic artefacts. The deposits date to approximately 500,000 years ago. Several lines of evidence suggest find-deposition took place in the back-waters of the Rhine Valley, close to a flood-plain pond.When the site was analysed in the mid 1990’s, the role of hominins in the accumulation of the faunal assemblage was difficult to decipher and the character of the site could not be clearly defined. At that time, the evidence from Miesenheim I was compared with that of “home base” sites, “foraging” sites and “short stay” sites and failed to meet the predictions for each of these different types of localities. A fundamental problem appeared to be the site itself with complex, superimposed sequences of deposition and faunal remains subject to varying degrees of modification by different agents. Here the results of a critical re-appraisal of the evidence are presented. The aim is to redefine the earlier results by re-assessing the archaeozoological, taphonomical and spatial, in particular refitting, analyses. In this way, processes of site formation can be reconsidered from a state of the art perspective and patterns pertaining to hominin activties can be more easily identified. Just over 1,100 faunal remains could be identified to several species of smaller and larger mammals, birds and fish. Including species typical of warm phases, such as wild boar, the faunal assemblage is representative of the type of vertebrate community which would have been living in and around the Rhine Valley during an interglacial. Although lithic artefacts were recovered and refitting showed that some of these had been produced at the site, the assemblage is relatively small (n = 113). Strong evidence of human interaction with the faunal remains is lacking. A conchoidal flake scar, similar in form to notches produced by humans when opening bone shafts to obtain marrow, was observed on a fragment of a long bone of horse or large bovid. Fine linear incisions on three bones, superficially resembling cut marks, are probably of natural origin. Currently, the evidence from Miesenheim I hints at a transient use of the site by hominins. This is in strong contrast to the evidence from large interglacial sites such as Schöningen and Neumark-Nord, where masses of faunal remains and abundant traces of hominin interaction indicate repeated visits along lake-shore margins. Despite this, sites such as Miesenheim I are important, since they provide not only additional information on hominin movement and land-use, but present another, ephemeral, facet of human behavioural adaptations in interglacials.

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              • WHAT WERE THEY UP AGAINST? MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE CARNIVORES AND HOMININS AT SCHÖNINGEN "GERMANY" VOD

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                Starkovich, Britt (University of Tübingen) Conard, Nicholas (University of Tübingen) The Lower Paleolithic site of Schöningen in north-central Germany preserves a unique set of archaeological materials, including multiple wooden spears and a large number of Pleistocene horse remains. The site is situated on the shores of a paleolake that attracted a range of herbivores as well as hominin and carnivore predators. The role of hominins as part of the carnivore guild at this time is significant in understanding the evolution of hominin subsistence strategies and cultural adaptations. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the faunal remains from the “Spear horizon south,” a southern extension of the main excavation area that yielded the famous Schöningen spears (13II4). In particular, we evaluate taphonomic modifications on the bones that were caused by carnivores, and highlight specific carnivore taxa recovered from the site, mostly two Homotherium latidens individuals. This large saber-toothed cat occupied Europe during much of the Pleistocene and, along with other large and small carnivore species, directly competed with hominins for meat resources. Carnivore remains were identified using standard zooarchaeological techniques and the length and breadth of gnaw marks on the faunal materials were measured using digital calipers. The resulting bite sizes were compared to experimental data presented by Dominguez-Rodrigo and Piqueras (2003) to determine the size and behavioral categories of carnivores that impacted the faunas. Consistently large bites on both spongy and compact bone indicate that large-bodied taxa such as wolves, lions, or saber-toothed cats impacted the assemblage. In rare cases where cut marks and bites are both present on bones, bites tend to overlie cuts, indicating that hominins had primary access to the carcasses. This reinforces the idea that hominins were successful carnivores in their ecosystem as early as the late Lower Paleolithic in north-central Europe. The position of hominins toward the top of the Middle Pleistocene carnivore guild was undoubtedly the result of foraging strategies that included opportunistic scavenging alongside increasingly complex and cooperative hunting strategies. This flexibility in food procurement, facilitated by an organic and inorganic toolkit, set the stage for the long-term success of the human species.

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                • EAST-WEST BAT DIVERSITY DIFFERENCES IN THE LATE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE OF EUROPE: FACT OR ARTIFACT? VOD

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                  Sevilla, Paloma (Dpto. Paleontología Fac. Geología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid) Horacek, Ivan (Dpt. Zoology. Charles University. Prague) Latitudinal and longitudinal differences are observed in current bat species richness in Europe that may be easily explained on the basis of ecological factors. The most evident gradient is latitudinal, with a distinct decrease in the number of species towards northern regions, clearly showing the influence of food availability and stationality in the pattern of distribution of European bats. Within the same latitude, an East-West pattern of species richness is observed, the eastern region of Europe being slightly richer than western Europe. This pattern is probably the consequence of both ecological and historical factors. Apparently, this east-west gradient of bat species richness was stronger in Europe during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, gradually decreasing during the Pleistocene and Holocene until the present situation. According to the available literature, eastern European countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic or Hungary had a particularly high species richness in the late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene that comprised both recent and extant bat species. At the same time, during this same period western European countries such as Spain or France have a record of a considerably lower number of species. But, to what extent these differences in gradient values are real, or are a consequence of factors that are biasing our appreciation of bat species richness through the Quaternary of Europe? Here we analyse this issue by checking the available data of fossil bats from late Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in Europe. European countries have been grouped to compare number of species recorded in east, central and western Europe during the Late Pliocene, Lower, Middle and Late Pleistocene and compared with recent values. Data such as number of localities per region and age vs. number of species have been analysed in an attempt to establish whether these differences are real or artificial. Results are discussed from different points of view.

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                  • EVOLUTION OF SMALL MAMMAL COMMUNITIES DURING THE LATEGLACIAL IN THE SOUTHWESTERN FRANCE VOD

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                    Royer, Aurélien (Laboratoire d’Anthropologie des Populations du Passé, UMR CNRS 5199) The Lateglacial is a slow gradual warming associated with cold short events that occurred between 18.0 and 11.7 ky cal. BP. Pollen analyses from deep-sea and lacustrine cores have well documented the evolution of floral communities in West Europe and have suggested that climatic fluctuations have influenced the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the exact impact of these climatic changes on small faunal communities in Southwestern France is still poorly documented. Peyrazet Cave is an archaeological site located in Lot (France) excavated since 2008, that has delivered a Lateglacial sequence dated between 15.5 and 11.1 ky cal. BP. Thousands of small faunal remains resulting from a natural accumulation were recovered. Investigation of this material reveals the presence of at least 4 insectivores and 9 rodents and more surprisingly the northern birch mouse (Sicista betulina) that had been never documented in this region before. The occurrence of this migrant taxa coming from the east is most likely related to climatic fluctuations of Lateglacial and complexify traditional scenarios developed to explain the evolution of small faunal communities between Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene.

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                    • COLD-CLIMATE SMALL MAMMAL ASSEMBLAGES IN THE LATE PLEISTOCENE OF CENTRAL IBERIA: NEW DATA FROM THE CUEVA DE LA BUENA PINTA SITE VOD

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                      Sevilla, Paloma (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) Blain, Hugues-Alexandre (Institut Catalá de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social) Arriaza, Mari Carmen (Museo Arqueológico Regional de la Comunidad de Madrid) Arsuaga, Juan Luis (Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) Baquedano, Enrique (Museo Arqueológico Regional de la Comunidad de Madrid) Pérez-González, Alfredo (Centro Nacional e Investigación sobre Evolución Humana) The Pleistocene record of small mammals adapted to cold climates in the Iberian Peninsula concentrates mainly in two groups of sites found on either side of the Pyrenees. The species involved are Microtus oeconomus, Microtus gregalis, Chionomys nivalis, Spermophilus sp., Marmota marmota and Sicista betulina. More recently, assemblages from sites found in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula have yielded some of these taxa. The aim of this presentation is to describe a cold-climate small mammal assemblage recorded in the Cueva de la Buena Pinta site. The Cueva de la Buena Pinta is a site located in the Sierra de Guadarrama, in the Central System. It consists of a small cave at 1100 m altitude in the Lozoya Valley, surrounded by mountains over 2000m high. Digging campaigns in the cave have taken place every summer since 2003. Absolute datings performed on levels 2 to 5 in this site place these levels within the Late Pleistocene, at the limit of C14 use or slightly further. Sieve-washing and picking of the small fossils contained in the sediments excavated during these years has yielded several thousands of small mammal teeth and other remains, providing a representative sample of the small vertebrate fauna preserved in these levels. The Late Pleistocene levels of the Cueva de la Buena Pinta contain an assemblage of small mammals where Microtus arvalis dominates. Smaller numbers of other cold-climate taxa have been identified, such as Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Marmota marmota, Ochotona pusilla and, possibly, Microtus gregalis. This faunal composition resembles the Late Pleistocene assemblages found in the Cantabrian region, but differs from them in the presence of Ochotona, presently the single record of this taxon in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, the small mammal record of the Cueva de la Buena Pinta site provides evidence that cold-climate adapted species reached the centre of the Iberian Peninsula during the mid-Late Pleistocene, distinctly earlier than the LGM. Furthermore, most of them are, to the moment, the southernmost records these taxa attained in the Iberian Peninsula, and even some of them, in Europe. Acknowledgements. This research has been conducted within project S2010/BMD-2330 funded by the I+D activities programme for research groups of the Consejería de Educación of the Community of Madrid.

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