1. Future Fuels: Can Biofuels Make Gasoline Cleaner, Cheaper?


    from EESIonline Added 2 0 0

    Learn more and download slides at http://www.eesi.org/briefings/view/061215biofuels The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) and the Governors' Biofuels Coalition held a briefing examining the current state and potential future of the transportation fuel supply. While combustion engines are more efficient and cleaner than ever, the transportation sector is still responsible for 27 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as half of all toxic emissions in the United States. Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) are conducting coordinated studies to address the opportunities and challenges to deploying a high octane mid-level ethanol blend to the passenger vehicle fleet. They found such fuels, which blend between 25 to 40 percent ethanol and 60 to 75 percent conventional gasoline (instead of the current 10 to 90 percent ratio), could lead to greater fuel efficiencies and lower overall GHG emissions. Speakers: Honorable Tammy Duckworth U.S. Representative, (D-IL) Dr. Robert McCormick Principal Engineer, Fuels Performance Group, National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) Download Slides: http://www.eesi.org/files/Robert_McCormick_061215.pdf Brian West Deputy Director, Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) Download Slides: http://www.eesi.org/files/Brian_West_061215.pdf Caley Johnson Transportation Market Analyst, National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) Download Slides: http://www.eesi.org/files/Caley_Johnson_061215.pdf Dr. Michael Wang Senior Scientist, Energy Systems, Argonne National Laboratory Download Slides: http://www.eesi.org/files/Michael_Wang_061215.pdf The Energy Information Administration predicts the internal combustion engine will be the dominant engine for the next several decades, making both fuel and engine efficiency a critical piece in reducing the GHG intensity of the transportation sector. Research is finding that higher octane fuels can help enable the greater engine efficiencies necessary to lower GHG emissions and improve fuel economy. Today, there are two primary sources of octane: gasoline aromatics, a petroleum refinery product, and ethanol. Ethanol is a renewable fuel sourced from corn as well as other agricultural feedstocks and organic wastes. In 2014, the United States produced 14.4 billion gallons of ethanol, making up approximately 10 percent of retail gasoline by volume. Research from the National Labs finds a mid-level ethanol blend not only increases the octane rating of fuel, it may also enable fuel efficiency improvement of 5 to 10 percent, lower the cost of gasoline, and reduce life-cycle GHG emissions. While mid-level ethanol blends do require some changes to the current gasoline infrastructure, many find the challenges have been overstated. These fuels are immediately compatible with the 17 million flex-fuel vehicles on the road today, and many gas station tanks and infrastructure are already compatible with a mid-level ethanol blend. Going forward, high octane, mid-level ethanol blends will allow for even greater engine efficiencies and advanced engine designs. Automakers are currently working to economically meet Corporate Average Fleet Emissions (CAFE) standards that save fuel and reduce emissions. Mid-level ethanol blends, by providing a better, higher octane fuel formulation for today's and tomorrow’s gasoline vehicles, may help meet multiple policy objectives beyond 2025.

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    • How to slice shallots by @cooksmarts


      from Cook Smarts Added 2,550 2 0

      Shallots can add some sweetness and sharpness to your meals - see how easy they are to slice! Visit cooksmarts.com/empower for our FREE cooking 101 guides.

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      • Ambientadores de coche


        from Equivalenza Added 23 0 0

        Perfuma tu coche en 5 pasos y 2 segundos con los ambientadores Equivalenza. Producto 100% made in Spain con alta concentración de esencia. Duración de hasta 3 meses.

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        • Sobres perfumados


          from Equivalenza Added 28 0 0

          El romanticismo de los sobres perfumados con toques de canela y naranja, lavanda, limpio, infantil, jazmín y frutos rojos, para ambientar los pequeños espacios de tu hogar. Elaborados artesanalmente con esencias naturales.

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          • Smell&Feel


            from Equivalenza Added 19 0 0

            Descubre los beneficios de la aromaterapia con el difusor de aromas para aceites esenciales.

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            • 2in2 Aromatics - Friend or Foe


              from Northern Bohemian Added 39 3 1

              Thanks to Nunyadamnbidness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HF-mRWWDhJ4 Subscribe! http://www.youtube.com/user/kaput808?feature=watch Tonight's topic suggested by Duke Avan. Follow! http://vimeo.com/user22551584 Subscribe! http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsV3lDwMmku6IZocMWANIvw. Best aromatics chosen by the Central Committee: http://vimeo.com/82514670 (All other aromatics have been banned.)

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              • How to peel, grate, and chop ginger


                from Cook Smarts Added 3,761 3 0

                Working with ginger can be a bit of a mystery. See how easily we peel ginger and then grate it or chop it. Use this aromatic for sautes, stir-fries, and sauces or throw it into a smoothie. Learn more at http://www.cooksmarts.com

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                • Braised Lamb


                  from Heather R. Short Added 12 0 0

                  Heather shows you how to make a delicious slow braised lamb shoulder roast with aromatic vegetables and red wine. Comfort Food Made Healthy. This is a photo album tutorial.

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                  • BIOFUELS 2


                    from ImageMaker Advertising Inc. Added

                    www.imaker.ca SGC ENERGIA BIOFUELS XTLH SCRIPT: Developing clean fuel is the driving force behind SGC Energia. With projects underway on 4 continents, SGC Energia is positioned to be the leader in the development of profitable fuels from under-utilized feedstocks, creating an alternative to petroleum and natural gas. SGC Energia is part of the SGC Group, a diversified group present in 13 countries with main offices in Portugal and in the US. SGC Energia believes that the production and marketing of bio and synthetic fuels will power the future. Why? Transportation Fuels are amongst the world´s largest commodity markets and are expected to grow almost 25% within the next 30 years. Refineries are currently operating at full capacity and are a business with high CAPEX and narrow margin. Security of supply is a concern. Fossil fuels production is concentrated in areas such as the Middle East: a trend that will increase in the future. And Fossil fuels will drive the reduction and control of greenhouse gas emissions. To help solve the transportation fuels challenge SGC Energia is bringing a unique solution to produce alternative clean fuels from each country's resources such as reject coal, waste biomass and waste. This solution is integrated under the name XTLH. XTLH plants are highly profitable, with the same EBITDA as a refinery but not more than a third of the investment. XTLH plants are 10 to 30 times smaller than a conventional oil refinery, capable of up to 10,000 barrels per day of clean fuels and chemicals using the best of proven technologies. XTLH technology facilitates faster plant implementation, dramatically reducing the time from blueprint to production. And XTLH products clearly outpace conventional fuels in terms of cetane, sulfur and aromatics, thus significantly improving diesel and jet fuel characteristics. An ideal complement to the oil majors. XTLH Technology is a clean, efficient and environmentally beneficial way to convert underutilized carbon-rich resources to valuable commodities for commercial use. One more way SGC Energia is helping the world achieve a cleaner future. About ImageMaker Advertising Inc. ImageMaker specializes in technical 3D animation & new media strategies for the Resources, Alternative Energy, Automation and Engineering Industries.

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                    • BIOFUELS


                      from ImageMaker Advertising Inc. Added

                      www.imaker.ca SGC ENERGIA BIOFUELS XTLH LONG Transforming the world’s underutilized carbon rich resources into high value fuel and petrochemical products is the driving force behind SGC Energia. To this end - after years of research SGC Energia has developed the unique, efficient, reliable and cost effective XTLH Solutions technology. X represents the variety of feedstock that can be used in XTLH, such as reject coal, biomass residues and waste; TLH - to liquid hydrocarbon. The process results in the production of diesel, naphtha, wax and other valuable commercial products. Process plants utilizing XTLH technology can range from 500 to 10,000 barrels per day of clean fuels and chemicals, requiring 10 to 30 times less space, when compared to a conventional oil refinery. Let's look at the process: The feedstock is first delivered to the plant and unloaded at the feedstock reception and storage area. It is then conveyed to the 'Feedstock Preparation & Handling Unit'. Before it can progress further, the feedstock is prepared in terms of particle size and moisture content through the use of dryers, grinders and shredders. This is required prior to entering the 'Gasification Unit’. Here, the feedstock is converted into Syngas – a synthesis gas composed mainly of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The gasifier converts the hydrocarbon feedstock into gaseous components by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with oxygen and/or steam. The XTLH technology is equipped to use different gasification designs - such as 'Fluidized Bed', Fixed Bed' and 'Entrained-Flow'. The choice of gasification will be dependent on various factors including the feedstock and size of the facility. Each gasification technology is adjusted by SGC Energia in several of its components in order to integrate it in the overall XTLH process. Raw Syngas is now ready to enter the 'Syngas Conditioning Unit' where it is filtered, compressed and then cooled before cleaning and polishing stages. SGC Energia has integrated technologies and economical procedures to achieve ultraclean syngas adapted for the production of clean fuels. Sulfur compounds, solid particles, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen compounds and Water are removed through the use of processes such as 'Sour Shift, ''Guard Beds', 'Acid Gas Removal', and other chemical and separation procedures. The Syngas may now be further enriched with Hydrogen - to adjust its Hydrogen to Carbon Monoxide ratio - to the proper levels required by the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. During the cleaning stage, the produced Carbon Dioxide is concentrated and therefore readily captured - a very important differentiated quality of the XTLH process versus the majority of thermal processes. In the 'Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Unit' the cleaned Syngas is converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuel - the Fischer-Tropsch or ‘FT’ Products - through chemical reactions accelerated by a customized catalyst. This conversion takes place within the FT Reactor where Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen react with the catalyst to create longer liquid hydrocarbon chains. The XTLH FT unit is a unique solution that incorporates the best technologies and combines reliability and low cost. The liquid hydrocarbon is on the home stretch as it enters the 'Products Finishing Unit'. Through a distillation process, the FT products are separated into Wax and into straight runs of FT Diesel and FT Naphtha. The straight runs are then hydrotreated to remove olephines and alcohols. If desired, the wax can be hydrocraked to produce more Diesel and Naphtha which will join the straight runs for a second distillation. Alternatively, Jet fuel can also be a final product of the XTLH technology. Finally, on emerging from the 'Products Finishing Unit' the Diesel, Naphtha and Wax are put into storage containers and prepared for delivery to clients. XTLH products are of superior quality and serve high volume markets. The produced Diesel is ultra clean and transparent, and can be used as diesel or as an additive to drastically improve the quality of standard diesel -- in particular in terms of cetane. The Naphtha is a highly paraffinic naphtha of superior quality, with several applications in the petrochemical industries. The wax is also highly paraffinic and used by several industries and manufacturers. The XTLH Solution is a clean, efficient and environmentally beneficial way to convert underutilized carbon rich resources to valuable commodities for commercial use. One more way SGC Energia is helping the world achieve a cleaner future. About ImageMaker Advertising Inc. ImageMaker specializes in technical 3D animation & new media strategies for the Resources, Alternative Energy, Automation and Engineering Industries.

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