1. A Thousand Invisible Cords: Connecting Genes to Ecosystems

    01:25

    from NAU Imaging Lab Added 2,051 2 0

    Ecologists point out that diversity leads to ecological resilience, a greater ability to adapt to future unknowns. In a world facing the unpredictable effects of climate change, diversity within a landscape as a whole, or within the genetic structure of a single species, is a priceless resource.

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    • ZOE from Brisbane - Australia

      13:19

      from denis piel Added 161 0 0

      ZOE from Brisbane - Australia

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      • Entrevista al Director de Generación Natura, César Lázaro, en Televisión Española

        07:10

        from Generación Natura Added 30 0 0

        El programa de Televisión Española, La Aventura del Saber, entrevista al director y creador de Generación Natura, César Lázaro, para presentar la sección de GN dentro del programa de televisión.

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        • Generación Natura y especies invasoras 2

          06:38

          from Generación Natura Added 45 0 0

          El naturalista y director de documentales Luis Miguel Domínguez quiere formar parte de Generación Natura para explicarnos su visión sobre uno de los problemas más importantes que tienen todos los países en cuestión de biodiversidad: las especies invasoras. Este es el segundo vídeo dedicado a este problema, en el que Luis Miguel nos da unos consejos para evitarlo y nos propone que todos sumemos esfuerzos para ello.

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          • Generación Natura y especies invasoras 1

            06:57

            from Generación Natura Added 37 0 0

            Primer vídeo del reportaje sobre las especies invasoras. Luis Miguel Domínguez, naturalista y director de documentales, nos hablan en Generación Natura del problema que existe con las especies que, sobre todo por la culpa del hombre, están invadiendo hábitats diferentes a los suyos. Las especies invasoras son unos de los problemas medioambientales más importantes a escala internacional, son portadores de enfermedades y, en su labor de colonización, acaban con las especies y la biodiversidad autóctona.

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            • Climate Change and Biodiversity: Paradise Lost or Found? - Myron A. Peck, University of Hamburg

              26:39

              from Kavli Frontiers of Science Added 24 0 0

              Fish being fished in waters being warmed: Revealing climate-driven changes in the productivity of marine fish species Myron A. Peck, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Center for Marine and Climate Research, University of Hamburg Notable, climate-driven changes have occurred world-wide in the abundance and distribution of heavily exploited populations/stocks of marine fish species. The coupling of long-term, retrospective analyses and novel, biophysical individual-based modelling (IBMs) shows great potential to reveal a “cause and effect” understanding of observed changes in key species. Case studies of climate-driven fluctuations will be discussed for some of the most ecologically- and commercially-important pelagic and demersal marine fishes including anchovy, sardine, herring and cod. The productivity and structure of food webs in many marine ecosystems have been (irreversibly?) altered by fishing pressure, a factor that must be taken into account if we hope to understand climate’s current and future role. A second focus of the talk will be on IBMs, cutting edge tools that allow us to amalgamate organismal-level physiology and ocean physics to better understand climate impacts. Opportunities and challenges are discussed regarding the ability of current tools to provide both practical management advice as well as to project future changes in marine fish species.

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              • Climate Change and Biodiversity: Paradise Lost or Found? - Zackary I. Johnson, Duke University

                30:53

                from Kavli Frontiers of Science Added 125 1 0

                The biodiversity and biogeography of Prochlorococcus, the dominant photosynthetic microbe in a globally changing ocean Zackary I. Johnson, Duke University Marine Lab Beaufort, NC USA Microbes (single celled organisms) are the dominant form of life in the global ocean and drive most of the energy production (and use), ecology and elemental transformations. However, global climate change is expected to modify the environment of these unique life forms with likely consequences for their abundance and biodiversity. Here I use a model marine microbe to describe the patterns and extent of marine microbial biodiversity and biogeography and predict how this may shift with global climate change. The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic microbe in tropical and subtropical open oceans and accounts for 5-25% of global marine photosynthesis. This genus is comprised of two major subgroups, one that is high-light adapted and numerically dominant near the surface and a second clade that is low-light adapted and numerically dominant deeper in the sunlit zone. However, using advanced sequencing technologies we can now distinguish numerous genetically distinct clades that have unique environmental distributions. Here I report on the biodiversity and distribution of these groups and their unique contribution to marine ecology and biogeochemistry over vast regions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Using models of global climate change, I show that the distribution and biodiversity of these microbes is expected to change substantially in the future with implications for the functioning of these ecosystems. These results highlight the importance of microbial biodiversity and how it can be used to predict and document changes in global biodiversity in response to a changing global ocean.

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                • Climate Change and Biodiversity: Paradise Lost or Found? - Peter Wilf, Pennsylvania State University

                  22:53

                  from Kavli Frontiers of Science Added 161 1 0

                  Climate Change and Biodiversity: Paradise Lost or Found? Peter Wilf, Pennsylvania State University This session explores the effects of climate change on biodiversity, including discoveries from deep time, impacts on living marine microbes, and efforts to understand historical and project future effects on marine fish populations. Beginning with deep time (> ca. 2 million years ago), we first consider constraints on comparisons to the present day. Whereas anthropogenic climate change is predicted to occur over 102 – 103 years, the most rapid climate changes detected in the past took place over spans of 104 – 106 years, occurred without the human footprint, and usually started from an unglaciated climate state much warmer than present. Nevertheless, deep-time data uniquely cover intervals far longer than all of human history, and many relevant examples are emerging from the rapidly improving geologic and fossil record. Past warming is generally associated with massive range shifts and increased biodiversity, but at the expense of incumbent species. This pattern is seen both in the ocean and on land during a brief global warming, apparently caused by a major pulse of CO2 released from Indian volcanoes, ca. 300,000 years prior to the end of the Cretaceous period. Instead of causing mass extinction as sometimes suggested (vs. asteroid impact in Mexico 300,000 years later), this warming was clearly beneficial to life overall. Fossilized insect-feeding on plants indicates a significant correlation through time of insect diversity and herbivory with temperature, indicating more robust and speciose terrestrial food webs in warmer climates. High-rainfall terrestrial environments supported large numbers of species as they do now, showing that rainfall distribution is as important as temperature to biodiversity. Perhaps most strikingly, warmer past climates supported extensive high-latitude forests for most of the past 300 million years. Thus, slow global warming (104 - 106 years) under a minimal human footprint would probably increase biodiversity and bring many other “paradisiacal” benefits, but this outcome is unlikely in the near future because of the rapid rate of current warming and significant human impacts on natural abundance and habitat integrity. Currano, E. D., C. C. Labandeira, and P. Wilf. 2010. Fossil insect folivory tracks paleotemperature for six million years. Ecological Monographs 80:547-567. Currano, E. D., P. Wilf, S. L. Wing, C. C. Labandeira, E. C. Lovelock, and D. L. Royer. 2008. Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:1960-1964. Gastaldo, R. A., W. A. DiMichele, and H. W. Pfefferkorn. 1996. Out of the icehouse into the greenhouse: a late Paleozoic analog for modern global vegetational change. GSA Today 6:1-7. Ravizza, G. and B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink. 2003. Chemostratigraphic evidence of Deccan volcanism from the marine osmium isotope record. Science 302:1392-1395. Schulte, P., et al. 2010. The Chicxulub asteroid Impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Science 327:1214-1218. Taylor, E. L., T. N. Taylor, and N. R. Cúneo. 1992. The present is not the key to the past: a polar forest from the Permian of Antarctica. Science 257:1675-1677. Wilf, P. 2008. Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. New Phytologist 178:486-502. Wilf, P. and C. C. Labandeira. 1999. Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene-Eocene warming. Science 284:2153-2156. Wilf, P., K. R. Johnson, and B. T. Huber. 2003. Correlated terrestrial and marine evidence for global climate changes before mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:599-604. Wilf, P., S. A. Little, A. Iglesias, M. C. Zamaloa, M. A. Gandolfo, N. R. Cúneo, and K. R. Johnson. 2009. Papuacedrus (Cupressaceae) in Eocene Patagonia, a new fossil link to Australasian rainforests. American Journal of Botany 96:2031-2047. Williams, C. J., A. H. Johnson, B. A. LePage, D. R. Vann, and T. Sweda. 2003. Reconstruction of Tertiary Metasequoia forests. II. Structure, biomass, and productivity of Eocene floodplain forests in the Canadian Arctic. Paleobiology 29:271-292.

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                  • The Green Collective Symposium - Compilation

                    01:58

                    from The Green Collective Added 1,945 0 0

                    On Monday March 19th more than 160 architects, designers and fashion designers, committed to co-creating a green future, gathered in the Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam (OBA) for The Green Collective Symposium.

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                    • Personhood, Memory, and Elephant Management

                      01:01:37

                      from Applied Biodiversity Science Added 36 0 0

                      Presented by Dr. Gary Varner, Professor and Interim Head, Department of Philosophy, Texas A&M University Abstract: In philosophical ethics, to describe an individual as a “person” is to claim that they deserve a special kind of respect in virtue of having certain cognitive capacities. In this sense, are any non-human animals good candidates for personhood? That depends, of course, on which cognitive capacities are in question. In this presentation, Dr. Varner will argue that while we have no good evidence that any non-human animals are persons in the sense of taking a biographical perspective on their lives (something that all normal adult humans do), some animals may be what he calls “near-persons” in virtue of having some kind of robust, conscious sense of their own pasts and futures. Elephants may qualify as near-persons in this sense, and Dr. Varner will briefly consider what the implications of this would be. If elephants are near-persons, then what kind of special respect would that call for in the management of wild and captive populations?

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