1. Racial Tendencies in Humans


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    • Universal Sphere Teleseminar Promo


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      Holly Hawkins Marwood gives information about an upcoming Intro tele seminar for the Universal Sphere as well as an upcoming online Universal Sphere training course.

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      • John Gowlett: Fire And Human Evolution 24 March 2015


        from Radical Anthropology / Added

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        Talk given to the Radical Anthropology Group at The Function Room, The Cock Tavern, 23 Phoenix Road, London NW1 1HB on 24 March 2015. Prof. Gowlett discussed the archaeology of fire, when and how it was used by early humans and how it may have been domesticated, and the role of fire in human evolution including its consequences for diet, social organisation and culture. Prof. Gowlett teaches at Liverpool University and is the author of 'Fireside chat: the impact of fire on hominid socioecology' (in Lucy to Language: the benchmark papers, 2014) and 'Earliest fire in africa: towards the convergence of archaeological evidence and the cooking hypothesis' (in Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 48, 2013). https://www.liv.ac.uk/archaeology-classics-and-egyptology/staff/john-gowlett/ http://radicalanthropologygroup.org http://functionroom.co

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        • Ishtara suggesting the use of the Universal Sphere®


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          This short channeled message has been edited and just the second half of the channeling describing the Universal Sphere, it's benefits in the use of it. The full channeled video is available on https://vimeo.com/84266451

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          • Behind The Screen- Experimental short film


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            Behind the screen is a experimental film about human evolution from stone age to atomic age. The film starts with black screen. The screen is metaphor to nature’s cloak. Behind the screen there will be a cognitive content. Stone refers Stone age. Cave art refers Family Structure, Candle light refers The Discovery of Fire. The Wheel refers invention of wheel. The Sword refers clash of civilizations. The alphabet refers art and literature. Falling apple refers beginning of modern science. The pistol refers beginning of modern war. The bulb refers beginning of electricity world . E=mc2 refers beginning of atomic age. Hands are metaphor to humans. wounds of hand reflects experiences from nature. Ticks of clock’s sound figure out time-consuming of the task.

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              from White Tiger Books / Added

              Vergès, Josep Maria (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Spain. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Spain) Allué, Ethel (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Spain. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Spain) Burjachs, Francesc (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Spain. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Spain) Cabanes, Dan (UB: Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Prehistòria, Història Antiga i Arqueologia. Spain) Carrancho, Ángel (UBU: Área de Prehistoria, Dept. Ciencias Históricas y Geografía, Universidad de Burgos, Spain) Expósito, Isabel (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Spain) Martín, Patricia (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Spain) Morales, Juan Ignacio (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Spain) Josep (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Spain) Viñas, Ramon (IPHES: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social. URV: Àrea de Prehistòria, Spain) The obtaining of referential data from present day herders is the basis to contribute to the correct interpretations of archeological records from prehistoric livestock spaces. In February 2014, we have started an experimental program in a fold where a herd is kept for the cleaning of the undergrowth in the frame of a fire prevention control program at Parc Natural d’Interès Nacional de Poblet (Tarragona). This herd was selected because, concerning its management, is similar to those from prehistoric periods and it is not fed with any other supplementary food as industrial fodder. The herd is mainly composed by goats with a small quantity of sheep. The herd is kept in the enclosure which is attached to a rocky wall, and has a roof and an open-air area, which provides contextual variability for this case study. The protected area is limited by walls and is covered with a roof and a small natural rock-shelter. In the frame of the experimental project we have agreed not to clean up the excrements, as we are burning them periodically with the aim to reproduce the management observed in the prehistoric folds. One of the main aspects of this research are the botanical studies with the aim of documenting the representativeness of the botanical content of these dung deposits in relation to the surrounding vegetal cover and the pasture areas. For this, we are developing a vegetation catalog of the pasture areas and the nearby surroundings, then we study the herd choices and we record the actual pollen deposition in the different areas of the shelter. Afterward, we aim to compare this data with the results of the dung analysis in relation to the presence of different plant species and their percentages in relation to the ones in the environment. Another objective is related to the formation processes of the deposit. With this aim, we are documenting the increase of the total excrement deposition and by activity areas in relation to the number of animals and the time the herd is inside the enclosure. The periodical burning of the excrement permits also to estimate the volume reduction due to this activity, and the temperature and chromatic changes. We are carrying out periodical samplings to characterize different aspects of the deposits using micromorphology related with season or activity changes. In the frame of the formation processes we are studying the horizontal and vertical movements related to the fold activity of different materials (lithic tools, ceramic, bones, etc.). Furthermore we are studying the taphonomy of the natural and cultural materials of the deposit. Also, in relation to the burning activity of the excrement, we are sampling the combustion episodes to obtain data to contextualize the data obtained by the archeomagentic studies. Finally we are documenting the development of polish of the rock produced by the herd. In this communication we are presenting the methodology and the experimental protocols used in the designing and control of the experimental program and the results obtained during the firsts months of development.

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                Verdún Castelló, Ester (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Navarrete, Vanessa (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Blanco, Àngel (Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Universitat Rovira i Virgili; 1Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Garcia, Lluís (UMR 5140, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) Saña, Maria (Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) La Draga site is located on the eastern shore of the Lake of Banyoles (Girona, Spain). Chronologically it corresponds to the early Neolithic. Two occupation phases have been distinguished: one corresponding to 5430-5000 cal BC and another one corresponding to 5210-4796 cal BC. The site has an extension of 8000m2 and only 10% of it has been excavated. It is partially underwater, a characteristic that permitted the excellent conservation of the remains. In La Draga, the presence of several kind of domestic and wild animals (mammals, fishes, birds, molluscs, reptiles...) (more than 50 species), has been documented and shows the exploitation of different environments. The exploitation of areas with different characteristics requires the combination of different techniques and economic practices (herding, hunting, fishing and collecting) and the implementation of a system of social organization to exploit and to manage the resources of these diverse environments. A detailed analysis of each type of archaeofaunal remains has been carried out (taxonomic analyses, MNI quantification, biometrics...). All the obtained data have been integrated in order to offer a general explanation about the exploitation and management of the faunal resources. Remains of birds, fishes, domestic and wild mammals, molluscs and turtles have been documented. This wide variety of animal resources shows: a) the exploitation of different environments (high mountain areas, forest, lakeshore, coastal areas, grazing areas; and b) the implementation of adequate techniques of managing, obtaining and processing of each type of animal. Chronologically La Draga site corresponds to the first moments of the implementation of agriculture and herding in the Iberian Peninsula. This characteristic together with the excellent conservation of the remains, makes La Draga an exceptional site to study the transition of an economy based on hunting and gathering to agriculture and herding and the social implications of this change. The study of the role of animal resources in La Draga and the interrelation among the different resources in a moment of economic change between two economic systems, could afford new data to reconstruct the social activities and the social organization system of the first agricultural and herding societies. The analyses of the animal remains recovered in La Draga show a combination of different productive activities (herding, hunting, fishing and collecting of molluscs). All these activities, permitted the inhabitants of the settlement to exploit all the available resources. However it seems that the consumption of domestic animals would be more important than the other. Although the presence of different types of species denotes the consumption of resources from different environments, lake environment and forest areas surrounding the site were the most exploited.

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                  Euba, Itxaso (1 ICAC, Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica. Spain) Allué, Ethel (3 IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, URV) Burjachs, Francesc (1 IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, URV) Wood fodder is an important income of food for herds in agro-pastoral communities. It is usually grazed and some species are specially appreciated by goats or sheep. The identification of wood charcoal in archaeological contexts hasbeensuggestedaspartofwoodyfoddertofeedanimals inside caves overall during winter periods. El Mirador cave has yielded a continuous sedimentary deposit of burnt sediments identified as “fumier” layers, corresponding to burnt sheep and goat dung. The study of the charcoal assemblage from El Mirador has been based on an anthracological traditional approach and a dendrological analysis. This multiapproach has permitted to characterize the charcoal assemblage. The anthracological analyses is based on the study of 3868 charcoal remains from 16 layers covering a chronological span from 7030 ±40 to 4760 ±40 yrs BP. Layers 6 to 24 correspond to the Neolithic whereas layers 3 and 4 correspond to the Bronze age. The results of the antracological analyses show that oaks (evergreen and deciduous oaks) were the most used species along the sequences showing >60% in all layers. Other taxa were also present in low percentages Pinus sylvestristype, Fraxinus, Corylus among others showing a more humid environment. At the top of the sequence evergreen oaks show higher values, with lower values of Fraxinus and Corylus indicating an increase of aridity. Finally, Fagus and Fabaceae are only present in the Bronze Age layers. The dendrological analyses could be only applied to a small sample, as charcoal fragments are usually small and number of rings needed for the study is not always available. The results show that most of the analyzed samples show much curved growth rings and mean value of 6 to 10 rings. These results suggest that the used wood corresponds to young branches and tree rings rapid growth rhythm which might be indicating that trees have been pruned regularly. Both analyses suggest that oak was probably used for woody fodder and was burnt during the combustion process that was carried out repeatedly.

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                    Fernández Marchena, Juan Luis (IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Zona educacional 4 (Edifici W3), Campus Sescelades URV, 43007 Tarragona, Spain / Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Fac. de Lletres, Av. Catalunya 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain) Rock crystal is a quartz variety of very good quality and excellent aptitudes for knapping. Although it is a infrequent raw material, in certain geological contexts, as in our case study, it can assume a large part of the tooling. Despite this, it is a material very little researched. The reasons for this lack of interest may be various, from the difficulty of analyzing a translucent material to its direct attachment to the symbolic world. Here we propose a methodology combining macro and microscopic analysis of knapping and use stigmas in order to establish a better approximation to the functionality of rock crystal artefacts. We integrally analyzed a series of experimental tools before use, with different microscopic equipment (low magnification microscopy, SEM and OLM with a Nomarski prism). After a first documentation, the tools were used in a sequential experimental program in order to observe the evolution of the use-wear. Fourteen experiments were done on different materials and with different actions, documenting the different traces of use with their respective orientations and sizes that appeared in each of the times recorded. The set of experiments resulted in different associations of use-wear traces (striations, chipping, roundings and polish) characteristic of the various worked materials and actions employed. We have also documented the lancet as a stigma of a technical character, which can also provide functional information. This is due to the formation process of this stigma, either by percussion or pressure. While those formed from the impact point on the ventral side are distributed radially, those created into the chipped follow the kinematics of the tools. Finally, we demonstrated that rock crystal is a material that offers many possibilities for use wear analysis. For this purpose, an analysis the association of a set of technical and functional stigmas is necessary. Furthermore, although the OLM with Nomarski prism is the best optical media to analyze rock crystal, the combination with other media can provide even more information.

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                      Rodriguez, Laura (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos) Carretero, Jose Miguel (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) García-Gonzalez, Rebeca (Laboratorio de Evolución Humana. Area de Paleontología. Universidad de Burgos) Martinez, Ignacio (Departamento de Paleontología de la Universidad de Alcalá, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) Gracia, Ana (Departamento de Paleontología de la Universidad de Alcalá, y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos) Arsuaga, Juan Luis (Departamento de Paleontología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid y UCM-ISCIII Centro Mixto para el estudio de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humano) When a mass grave is discovered there should be a big quantity of bones from different individuals which are mixed or/and without any clear anatomical position. Because the main goal in every Physical and Forensic Anthropology and Archaeological studies is to characterize the population biological profile, one of the first steps in all the cases is to try to establish a minimum number of individual (MNI) which of them are males and which females, the age at dead, and of course, and to try associate bones belonging to the same individual to be able to determine body proportions. So, the founding of mixed and isolated bones of different individuals is one of the biggest problems to be solved. Until now, systematic search by symmetry and articular congruence was the main way to try to define an individual, but in here we will try to add a new tool for this, the diaphyseal cross-section geometric properties of the bones. We use several modern human samples (N=150) and a Neandertal sample (N=9) to check the use of the new proposed technic to other potential populations and/or species. Correlation in joint size measurements in contiguous bones and bone length in parallel ones are used for eliminate the most unprovable association of couple of bones, and then the correlation of geometric properties at 50% level for all bones (except in the humerus in which we use the 35% level) is used only in those most probable pairs. Sliding caliper and osteometric board for articular and length measurements as well as computer tomography, Mimics software and Autocad are used to extract and calculate the mechanical parameters. It can be said, that correlation coefficients between joints in the same individual are high enough to, at least, eliminate some bone couples which are unable to belong to the same individual. Geometric properties are indeed the best approach to associate bones with r values around 0.9 in most cases. In this work we are showing that Neandertals look to follow the same trend than modern humans. This methodical combination is a powerful tool in order to associate isolated bones, and as in Neandertals is also valid, we are opening here a new way for associating bones in other hominin samples.

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