1. Quantum Tapestries

    58:16

    from UK College of Arts & Sciences / Added

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    Dr. Matthew Fisher University of California, Santa Barbara Quantum Tapestries Within each of Nature's crystals is an exotic quantum world of electrons weaving to and fro. Each crystal has its own unique tapestry, as varied as the crystals themselves. In some crystals the electrons weave an orderly quilt. Within others the electrons are seemingly entwined in an entangled web of quantum motion. In thi stalk I will describe the ongoing efforts to disentangle even Nature's most intricate quantum embroidery. Cutting-edge quantum many-body simulations together with recent ideas from quantum information theory, such as entangelment entropy, are enabling a coherent picture to emerge.

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    • TITLE

      54:52

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      Dr. Geoff Greene University of Tennessee, Knoxville While neutrons within nuclei may be stable, the free neutron is unstable against beta decay and has a mean lifetime of ~15min. Free neutron beta decay is, perhaps, the simplest weak nuclear process as it is uncomplicated by many body effects that are present in the decay of nuclei. As a result, it can be directly understood in terms of rather simple fundamental weak interaction theory. Additionally, because free neutron decay is the "prototype" for all nuclear beta decays, the neutron lifetime is a fundamental parameter whose value is important not only in nuclear physics, but also in astrophysics, cosmology, and particle physics. I will give an introduction to the theory of weak nuclear decay and briefly discuss the importance of the neutron lifetime as a parameter in the Big Bang. A review of the experimental strategies for the measurement of the neutron lifetime will be given as well as a discussion of the puzzling discrepancy among the measurements with the lowest quoted uncertainty. Finally, I present a very new result recently obtained at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility in Gaithersburg Md.

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      • Nicolas Regnault

        28:51

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        Nicolas Regnault presenting at the Great Lakes Strings 2013.

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        • Diagnostic Development Unit (DDU) University of Leicester

          02:35

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          The Diagnostic Development Unit (DDU) is a non-invasive disease detection facility, developed by the University of Leicester for use in Leicester Royal Infirmary's A&E department. It is designed to detect the "sight, smell and feel" of disease without the use of invasive probes, blood tests, or other time-consuming and uncomfortable procedures. One group of instruments analyses gases present in a patient's breath, a second uses imaging systems and technologies to hunt for signs of disease via the surface of the human body, the third uses a suite of monitors to look inside the body and measure blood-flow and oxygenation in real-time. University of Leicester researchers from space research, emergency medicine and Chemistry, worked with colleagues in Cardiovascular Sciences, Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Physics and Astronomy, Engineering, IT Services and the Leicester Royal Infirmary to create the Unit.

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          • Martin Kruczenski

            26:33

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            Martin Kruczenski presenting at Great Lakes String 2013

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            • The Galactic Ecosystem: connecting internal structure with formation history

              01:03:53

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              Dr. Rachel Somerville Rutgers University The Galactic Ecosystem: connecting internal structure with formation history It has long been known that galaxies' internal structure is connected with their star formation activity in the nearby universe. Recent surveys have allowed us to study these correlations out to very large distances, allowing us for the first time to quantify these relationships over a significant span of cosmic time for statistically robust samples of objects. It has been known for several years that galaxies are growing in mass and radius, experiencing morphological transformation, and "downsizing" their star formation activity over cosmic time. Now, new observations are painting a picture in which the internal structure of galaxies (size and morphology) is intimately linked with their star formation activity and formation history. There are hints that the co-evolution of supermassive black holes with their host galaxies may be the driving force behind these correlations, but this remains controversial. While cosmological simulations set within the hierarchical formation scenario of Cold Dark Matter currently offer a plausible story for interpreting these observations, many puzzles remain. I will review recent insights gleaned from deep multi-wavelength surveys and state-of-the-art theoretical models and simulations, as well as highlight the open questions and challenges for the future.

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              • Dam Son

                26:54

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                Dam Son presenting at Great Lakes String 2013

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                • Peter Koroteev

                  30:01

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                  Peter Koroteev presenting at Great Lakes String 2013

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                  • Sergei Khlebnikov

                    17:43

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                    Sergei Khlebnikov presenting at Great Lakes String 2013

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                    • From Voids to Clusters: Gas and Galaxy Evolution in the Local Universe

                      01:32:01

                      from UK College of Arts & Sciences / Added

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                      Our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies and their large scale structure has advanced enormously over the last decade, thanks to an impressive synergy between theoretical and observational efforts. While the growth of the dark matter component seems well understood, the physics of the gas, during its accretion, removal and/or depletion is less well understood. Increasingly large scale optical surveys are tracing out the cosmic web of filaments and voids. Mathematical tools have been developed to describe these structures and to identify galaxies located in specific environments. HI imaging surveys begin to answer the question: how do galaxies get and lose their gas? The best evidence for ongoing gas accretion is found in the lowest density environments, while removal of gas in the highest density environments stops star formation and reddens the galaxies. Speaker: Jacquiline van Gorkom, Columbia University

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